Tag Archives: wisdom of russell and burch

On Replacing the Concept of Replacement

Michael Balls

Russell and Burch saw failure to accept the correlation
between humanity and efficacy as an example of rationalisation,
a psychological defence mechanism

While wondering what I could discuss in this column I looked, as I often do, in the abridged version1 of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique,2 at Russell and Burch’s introduction of what I call the humanity criterion. It is part of their discussion of the sociological factors which are among the Factors Governing Progress. This is how part of page 101 of the abridged version reads:

In fact, really informative experiments must be as humane as would be conceivable possible, for science and exploration are indissolubly linked to the social activity of cooperation, which will find its expression in relation to other animals, no less than to our fellow humans. Conscious good will and the social operational method are useless as safeguards against the mechanism of rationalisation (in the pathological sense of the term – i.e. the mechanism of defence by which unacceptable thoughts or actions are given acceptable reasons to justify them to oneself and to others, while, at the same tie, unwittingly hiding the true, but unconscious, motives for them).

The bold type indicates my explanation, and I have to admit that, six years after preparing the abridged version of The Principles, I now found it difficult to see what Russell and Burch had intended to convey. I therefore looked back at the original book, and found this paragraph on pages 156−157:

In efficacy, or yield of information, the advantages of humane technique apply almost universally. The correlation between humanity and efficacy has appeared so often in this book that we need not labour the point. There is, however, a more fundamental aspect of this correlation, specially important in research. Science means the operational method — telling somebody else how to see what you saw. This method is one of the greatest of all human evolutionary innovations. It has, however, one drawback. It prevents permanent acceptance of false information, but it does not prevent wastage of time and effort. The activity of science is the supreme expression of the human exploratory drive, and as such it is the subject to the same pathology. The scientist is liable, like all other individuals, to block his exploration on some front where his reactions to childhood social experiences are impinged upon. When this happens to the experimental biologist, we can predict the consequence with certainty. Instead of really exploring, he will, in his experiments, act out on his animals, in a more or less symbolic and exaggerated way, some kind of treatment which he once experienced in social intercourse with his parents. He can rationalise this as exploration, and hence fail to notice the block. But in fact such acting out invariably occurs precisely when real exploration is blocked, and must be relinquished before real exploration can begin again. Hence, such experiments will be utterly wasteful, misleading, and uninformative. The treatment of the animals, for one thing, will inevitably be such as to impair their use as satisfactory models. The interpretation of the results will be vitiated by projection. Really informative experiments, must in fact be as humane as would be conceivably possible, for science and exploration are indissolubly linked to the social activity of cooperation, which will find its expression in relation to other animals no less than to our fellow humans. Conscious goodwill and the social operational method are useless as safeguards against the mechanism of rationalisation (in the pathological sense of the term).

Here, the underlining indicates what I omitted from the abridged version, and I now wonder why I did so. These words clearly reflect Russell’s interest in psychology — he later became a psychotherapist, and undoubtedly will have been influenced by discussions with his psychotherapist wife, Claire Russell. They could be seen as an explanation why some scientists did not appreciate the essential link between humanity and efficacy, and why Russell thought they needed what was offered by the Three Rs and the humanity criterion.

It is not clear what is meant by “the social operational method”, and consulting Google leads to only one hit — The Principles itself! “Conscious goodwill” is probably meant to contrast with unconscious rationalisation.  Perhaps what Russell meant is that, however sincere the intention may appear to be, support for the Three Rs is useless, unless it leads to active and practical commitment to their development and application.

We are often confronted with rationalisation, the pseudo-rational justification of irrational acts,3 and its relative, intellectualisation, a different defence mechanism (or way of making excuses), “where reasoning is used to block confrontation with an unconscious conflict and its associated emotional stress, where thinking is used to avoid feeling. It involves removing one’s self, emotionally, from a stressful event. Intellectualisation is one of Freud’s original defence mechanisms. Freud believed that memories have both conscious and unconscious aspects, and that intellectualisation allows for the conscious analysis of an event in a way that does not provoke anxiety.”4

I am not a psychoanalyst, and I think it would be unwise, even dangerous, were I to seek to delve into the underlying reasons why some scientists are so keen to run to animal experimentation as the first resort and to do so little to make possible its replacement. Nevertheless, I can say, without fear of contradiction, that this is another great example of how Russell and Burch’s wonderful book continues to give us food for thought and calls for action.

Professor Michael Balls
E-mail: michael.balls@btopenworld.com

References
1 Balls, M. (2009). The Three Rs and the Humanity Criterion, 131pp. Nottingham, UK:  FRAME.
2 Russell, W.M.S. & Burch, R.L. (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, xiv + 238pp. London, UK: Methuen.
3 Anon. (2015). Rationalization (psychology). San Francisco, CA, USA: Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rationalization_(psychology) (Accessed 26.08.15).
4 Anon. (2015). Intellectualization. San Francisco, CA, USA: Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intellectualization (Accessed 26.08.15).

The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique is now out of print, but the full text can be found at http://altweb.jhsph.edu/pubs/books/humane_exp/het-toc. The abridged version, The Three Rs and the Humanity Criterion, can be obtained from
FRAME.

Download a pdf copy of this post by clicking here.

Previous Wisdom of Russell & Burch posts from Michael Balls:

The Concept, Sources and Incidence of Inhumanity and its Diminution or Removal Through Implementation of the Three Rs.
The Wages of Inhumanity.
Fidelity and Discrimination.
Reduction.
Refinement. 
Replacement. 
The Factors Governing Progress. 
UFAW and Major Charles Hume. 
The Toxicity Testing Problem. 
The Use of Lower Organisms.
The Analysis of Direct Inhumanity.
William Russell: Polymath, Wordsmith, Classicist and Humourist .
Rex Leonard Burch: Humane Scientist and Gentle Man.
On the Proper Application of Appropriate Statistical Methods. 
Comparative Substitution. 
The Three Rs: The Way Forward .
The Choice of Procedures .
Rationalisation and Intellectualisation.

 

Rationalisation and Intellectualisation

Michael Balls

Russell and Burch saw failure to accept the correlation
between humanity and efficacy as an example of
rationalisation, a psychological defence mechanism

While wondering what I could discuss in this column I looked, as I often do, in the abridged version1 of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique,2 at Russell and Burch’s introduction of what I call the humanity criterion. It is part of their discussion of the sociological factors which are among the Factors Governing Progress. This is how part of page 101 of the abridged version reads:
In fact, really informative experiments must be as humane as would be conceivable possible, for science and exploration are indissolubly linked to the social activity of cooperation, which will find its expression in relation to other animals, no less than to our fellow humans. Conscious good will and the social operational method are useless as safeguards against the mechanism of rationalisation (in the pathological sense of the term — i.e. the mechanism of defence by which unacceptable thoughts or actions are given acceptable reasons to justify them to oneself and to others, while, at the same tie, unwittingly hiding the true, but unconscious, motives for them).

The bold type indicates my explanation, and I have to admit that, six years after preparing the abridged version of The Principles, I now found it difficult to see what Russell and Burch had intended to convey. I therefore looked back at the original book, and found this paragraph on pages 156−157:
In efficacy, or yield of information, the advantages of humane technique apply almost universally. The correlation between humanity and efficacy has appeared so often in this book that we need not labour the point. There is, however, a more fundamental aspect of this correlation, specially important in research. Science means the operational method — telling somebody else how to see what you saw. This method is one of the greatest of all human evolutionary innovations. It has, however, one drawback. It prevents permanent acceptance of false information, but it does not prevent wastage of time and effort. The activity of science is the supreme expression of the human exploratory drive, and as such it is the subject to the same pathology. The scientist is liable, like all other individuals, to block his exploration on some front where his reactions to childhood social experiences are impinged upon. When this happens to the experimental biologist, we can predict the consequence with certainty. Instead of really exploring, he will, in his experiments, act out on his animals, in a more or less symbolic and exaggerated way, some kind of treatment which he once experienced in social intercourse with his parents. He can rationalise this as exploration, and hence fail to notice the block. But in fact such acting out invariably occurs precisely when real exploration is blocked, and must be relinquished before real exploration can begin again. Hence, such experiments will be utterly wasteful, misleading, and uninformative. The treatment of the animals, for one thing, will inevitably be such as to impair their use as satisfactory models. The interpretation of the results will be vitiated by projection. Really  informative experiments, must in fact be as humane as would be conceivably possible, for science and exploration are indissolubly linked to the social activity of cooperation, which will find its expression in relation to other animals no less than to our fellow humans. Conscious goodwill and the social operational method are useless as safeguards against the mechanism of rationalisation (in the pathological sense of the term).

Here, the underlining indicates what I omitted from the abridged version, and I now wonder why I did so. These words clearly reflect Russell’s interest in psychology — he later became a psychotherapist, and undoubtedly will have been influenced by discussions with his psychotherapist wife, Claire Russell. They could be seen as an explanation why some scientists did not appreciate the essential link between humanity and efficacy, and why Russell thought they needed what was offered by the Three Rs and the humanity criterion.

It is not clear what is meant by “the social operational method”, and consulting Google leads to only one hit — The Principles itself! “Conscious goodwill” is probably meant to contrast with unconscious rationalisation. Perhaps what Russell meant is that, however sincere the intention may appear to be, support for the Three Rs is useless, unless it leads to active and practical commitment to their development and application.

We are often confronted with rationalisation, the pseudo-rational justification of irrational acts,3 and its relative, intellectualisation, a different defence mechanism (or way of making excuses), “where reasoning is used to block confrontation with an unconscious conflict and its associated emotional stress, where thinking is used to avoid feeling. It involves removing one’s self, emotionally, from a stressful event. Intellectualisation is one of Freud’s original defence mechanisms. Freud believed that memories have both conscious and unconscious aspects, and that intellectualisation allows for the conscious analysis of an event in a way that does not provoke anxiety.”4

I am not a psychoanalyst, and I think it would be unwise, even dangerous, were I to seek to delve into the underlying reasons why some scientists are so keen to run to animal experimentation as the first resort and to do so little to make possible its replacement. Nevertheless, I can say, without fear of contradiction, that this is another great example of how Russell and Burch’s wonderful book continues to give us food for thought and calls for action.

Professor Michael Balls
E-mail: michael.balls@btopenworld.com

References
1 Balls, M. (2009). The Three Rs and the Humanity Criterion, 131pp. Nottingham, UK:  FRAME.
2 Russell, W.M.S. & Burch, R.L. (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, xiv + 238pp. London, UK: Methuen.
3 Anon. (2015). Rationalization (psychology). San Francisco, CA, USA: Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rationalization_(psychology) (Accessed 26.08.15).
4 Anon. (2015). Intellectualization. San Francisco, CA, USA: Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intellectualization
(Accessed 26.08.15).
The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique is now out of print, but the full text can be found at http://altweb.jhsph.edu/pubs/books/humane_exp/het-toc. The abridged version, The Three Rs and the Humanity Criterion, can be obtained from
FRAME.

The choice of procedures

Michael Balls

The scientifically-justifiable choice of procedure
is a crucial issue in animal experimentation,
in the interests of both humanity and efficiency

In the opening of their chapter on Reduction and Strategy in Research in The Principles of  Humane Experimental Technique,1 Russell and Burch pointed out that “one general way in which great reduction can occur is by the right choice of strategies in the planning and performance of whole lines of research”.

They referred to the way Charles Hume had put it “in a searching essay”,2 that is, that “the central problem is that of choosing between trial and error on a grand scale and deductively inspired research”. The second type of choice can “take the form of testing deductions from well and consciously formulated hypotheses, or it may involve working from hunches — really the same thing, for where hunches are of any value, they are found to be based on equally precise hypotheses”. They said that the essence of the strategy “is that particular experiments are selected on some basis … from a larger set of experiments that  could have been performed”, and, as Hume had pointed out, “insighted” research “must be vastly less wasteful of animals”, where animals are to be used in the experiments.

I discussed this in an earlier comment on the Wisdom of Russell and Burch in relation to Reduction,3 with particular reference to experimental design and statistical analysis, but I now want to consider their discussion on The Choice of Procedures, in their chapter on Refinement.

Russell and Burch said that almost any research question “can always be answered in principle by a number of different procedures”, and the mark of distinction of “the great experimenter is the knack of choosing the most rapid, elegant and simple one”. But they then ask whether there are any simple rules in this context. One “general principle, important for both humanity and efficiency, is that of avoiding elaborate and roundabout methods”. Another rule is “the very careful formulation of questions”. One approach is to “first ask the question, then draw up, at least mentally, a list of procedures by which it could be answered”. If the list is long enough, consideration can be given to choosing the best procedure. If the list is too short, the question may need to be reformulated, to permit a wider range of procedural choice.

The greater the experimenter, in terms of ability and quality, the easier and better will be the choice of procedure. In addition, the humane experimenter will be careful to take account of Hume’s point about the wastage of animals, and Russell and Burch’s emphasis on the need for humanity and efficiency. This should be obvious, in terms of the use of resources, even if it were not a requirement of the laws under which animal experimentation is now permitted. It is a vital aspect of the education and training which must be regarded as essential for all those who are to undertake research, particularly if there is any risk of causing animal suffering, but also in the interests of the humans for whose benefit the research is being conducted.

It is encouraging that, in its response to the European Citizens’ Stop Vivisection Initiative,4,5 the European Commission has proposed four actions, one of which is to “analyse technologies, information sources and networks from all relevant sectors with potential impact on the advancement of the Three Rs”, in order to “present by end 2016, an assessment of options to enhance knowledge sharing among all relevant parties. The assessment will consider how  systematically to accelerate knowledge exchange through communication, dissemination, education and training.”

In order to aid researchers in their thought process when designing any project that could involve experimental animals, the FRAME Reduction Steering Committee designed a Strategic Planning Poster.6 The poster, which is available in several languages, guides the scientist through the decision points and steps needed when designing a whole programme of work, including the individual experiments within it. This resource, and the FRAME Training Schools in  Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis,7 encourage researchers to think about how to design their sequence of experiments, in order to minimise the number of animals that are exposed to the most severe procedures and to contemplate whether animals are needed at all.

Professor Michael Balls
c/o FRAME
Russell & Burch House
96–98 North Sherwood Street
Nottingham NG1 4EE
UK
E-mail: michael.balls@btopenworld.com

References
1 Russell, W.M.S. & Burch, R.L. (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, xiv + 238pp. London, UK: Methuen.
2 Hume, C.W. (1957). The strategy and tactics of experimentation. The Lancet, 23 November, 1049–1052.
3 Balls, M. (2013). The Wisdom of Russell and Burch. 4. Reduction. ATLA 41, P24–P25.
4 Anon. (2015). Commission Response to the European Citizens’ Initiative “Stop Vivisection”. Brussels, Belgium: Intergroup on the Welfare and Conservation
of Animals. Available at: http://www.animalwelfare intergroup.eu/2015/06/05/european-commissiondoesnt- go-far-enough-to-meet-citizens-demands-toimprove-
animal-welfare/ (Accessed 08.07.15).
5 Balls, M. (2015). The European Citizens’ Stop Vivisection Initiative. ATLA 43, 147–150.
6 Gaines Das, R., Fry, D., Preziosi, R. & Hudson, M. (2009). Planning for reduction. ATLA 37, 27–32.
7 Fry, D., Gaines Das, R., Preziosi, R. & Hudson, M. (2010). Planning for refinement and reduction. ALTEX 27, Special Issue, 293–298.